Quantitative study of developmental biology confirms Dickinsonia as a metazoan

Renee S. Hoekzema, Martin D. Brasier, Frances S. Dunn and Alexander G. Liu, Proceedings of the Royal Society B (2017).

Formation hypothesis for the trace fossil Paleodictyon

Renee S. Hoekzema, William McMahon, Maarten G. Kleinhans, in preparation.

Mathematical studies of Morphology in Early Life Palaeobiology

Renee S. Hoekzema, PhD thesis (2015).


I wrote an applet modeling the growth of Dickinsonia and other organisms with an iterative, terminal or pre-terminal mode of growth.

Growth model applet

Unfortunately the web-embedding of CDF is not supported anymore. To view and manipulate growth models, install the free program Wolfram CDF Player and download the applet via this link, then open the file with the program.

These animations were created with growth models similar those available in the applet. They were written in Wolfram Mathematica.

growth model

growth model

growth model